City of Tirana planed measure on sustainable development, Dr Lorenc Gordani, 10th June 2017
City of Tirana has adopted a Sustainable Energy Action Plan with the main goal to identify concrete measures for sectors of immediate energy consumption in Tirana, the realization of which will result in CO2 emission reduction by more than 20% by 2020, in relation to the 2011 as baseline year. Methodology for development of the Action Plan is in accordance with the guidelines of the European Commission.
The sectors of immediate energy consumption in Tirana, according to the recommendations of the European Commission, include: building, transport and public lighting. Detailed energy analysis and the corresponding Baseline Emissions Inventory (BEI) for 2011, were developed per each sector. Furthermore, BEI of the city of Tirana was done in accordance with the Protocol of the Intergovernmental panel on climate Change (IPCC).
In order to carry out a detailed energy analysis, the building sector was divided into the three following subsectors: Buildings owned by the City of Tirana; Residential buildings (households); Commercial and service buildings in Tirana. The transport sector has three subsectors: Transport fleet owned by the City of Tirana; Public transport in the City; Private and commercial vehicles. The public lighting sector has no subsectors.
For the above mentioned sectors and sub-sectors required energy parameters for year 2011 were collected, and based on them the detailed energy analysis were conducted. Total energy consumption of the concerned sectors of the City of Tirana is 8 617,1 TJ, out of which 6 149,6 TJ (71,37%) was spent in buildings sector, followed by the transport sector with consumption of 2 442,6 TJ (28,35%). Electricity (5 040,9 TJ) is the energy type with highest share in buildings sector, while the transport sector consumed mostly gasoline (1 308,3 TJ) and diesel (1 256,4 TJ).
Total emission of inventory is 639,1 kt CO2. The largest emission source, and the source of energy consumption, is the building sector with the emission amounting to 462,9 kt CO2, followed by the transport sector with the emission of 174,3 kt CO2.
Based on above the identified CO2 emissions reduction measures are divided into three main groups: building, transport and public lighting. Regarding building sector, the critical measures are identified on general measures on planning and promotion, of public buildings, residential buildings (households), commercial and service buildings. Identified measures for the transport sector divided into legal and planned measures, promotion, information and education measures, vehicles owned/used by the local authority, public transport, private and commercial vehicles.
The realization of all proposed measures in all three analysed sectors of energy consumption in the city of Tirana will result in the reduction of CO2 emissions by 22.28 % in relation to baseline emissions from 2011. Having in mind that the indicative goal is reduction by 20%, its realization require available financial instruments for implementation (national or international).
Generally, the basic recommendations for achieving maximum efficiency of SEAP implementation, in national level are: secure the support of as large number of stakeholders as possible; Build an organizational structure for the implementation based on the knowledge and abilities; Establish successful scheme for continuous collection of requested energy indicators of each subsector; Establish Systematic Energy Management in buildings owned by the local authorities.
As well as identify available national and international financial sources for implementation. Prepare quality sustainable energy projects in all energy sectors and subsectors in the City: A good project will always find its investors! Develop regularly Emission Inventory for the City. Implement proposed measures systematically and responsibly. Monitor and control the implementation systematically and responsibly. Inform and involve citizens about the whole process of development, implementation and monitoring.
However, the above has to be followed by a regional approach such as the building of the successful organizational structure for LEDS implementation by join the EU Covenant of Mayors and other similar initiative. Activation of an regional cooperate on the smart support measures improving sustainability of energy systems, through designing and implementing market-based support schemes, enabling the engagement of citizens and setting up schemes to develop the necessary skills and competences of small and medium enterprises.
Need to take advantage and being assisted by experience of each other on improve the governance for energy efficiency, through amending or developing new legislation that will enable and promote, fully implementing the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, developing new or converting existing district or central heating and cooling systems, establishment of appropriate financing mechanisms, including a state level fund for co-financing of energy efficiency measures in line with the Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU.
Join regional cooperation on foster climate action and transparency of sustainable energy markets, reviewing the national greenhouse gas emissions monitoring and reporting systems, establishing national indicative roadmaps for implementing measures required to increase investor confidence in sustainable energy markets, and strengthening the capacity of national administrative authorities to oversee and govern in an independent, proactive and transparent manner.
The coordinator of the process of preparation, implementation and monitoring of the Action Plan should be a person from the City administration most knowledgeable about energy issues of the City. The coordinator is the key figure in the implementation of the Action Plan, who brings all important decisions from the onset, and who proposes the establishment of all working groups and monitoring bodies necessary for implementation. Energy City Council should gather renowned experienced experts with great knowledge and vision.
The implementation of proposed measures will enable direct energy and financial savings, reduce harmful effect on the environment, improve the quality of life, and raise the level of responsibility and awareness among citizens, which is a strategic commitment and goal of the policy of responsible government in the City of Tirana.
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